For a long time Le Havre has exploited the strengths of its coastal location but also suffered from its relative isolation.
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This is why the accessibility of the city has been improved with the harbour highway A E05 which links Le Havre to the A13 autoroute over Tancarville Bridge. No direct rail link connects Le Havre and Caen yet many projects — known as the "Southwest Line" — to link Le Havre to the left bank of the Seine downstream from Rouen, near the estuary of the river, were studied in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century but none have been realized. By public transport it is necessary to go to Rouen by train or bus using No. Finally, the company AirPlus provides a shuttle service to the train stations and airports of Paris.
The main destination is the Transport hub of Lyon. Two services to Portsmouth are provided daily  from the Terminal de la Citadelle. The link to Ireland was moved to the port of Cherbourg. Crossing times to Portsmouth vary from five hours and thirty minutes to eight hours.
The city and the metropolitan area has a dense transport network. This solves the problem of a break between the lower town and the upper town and the two parts of the city are connected by long boulevards, winding roads, many stairs, a funicular , and finally the Jenner tunnel. The overhaul of the bus network in helped to ensure a better service for all the towns in the metropolitan area. The CTPO operates a bus network consisting of 19 regular urban routes and six evening routes called the "Midnight Bus".
Le Havre had a tramway system from until it closed in The first part of the line connects the beach to the station climbing to the upper town through a new tunnel near the Jenner tunnel then it splits into two: one link going to Mont-Gaillard, the other to Caucriauville. From , development work for Segregated cycle facilities have increased including a connection to the Greenway which promises to be an important network of quality.
Finally, taxis work in Le Havre and serve 25 stations. Largely destroyed during the Second World War , the city was rebuilt according to the plans of the architect Auguste Perret between and Only the town hall and the Church of Saint Joseph m high were personally designed by Auguste Perret. Another notable architectural work of the central city is that of the House of Culture built in by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and nicknamed "the Volcano" because of the shape of the building.
The Notre Dame and Perrey neighbourhoods are mainly residential. Les Halles is one of the commercial hubs of the city. The Saint Francis neighborhood was also rebuilt after [ citation needed ] but in a radically different architectural style: the buildings are brick and have pitched slate roofs. This is the restaurant district and the fish market. To the east and north of the rebuilt central city are a stretch of old neighbourhoods Danton, Saint-Vincent, Graville, Massillon, etc. The buildings, usually in brick, dated to the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries.
The shops are concentrated along several major roads in the Rond-Point neighbourhood. During the s and s, these neighborhoods have seen major redevelopments, particularly in the context of an OPAH: improvement of habitat by rehabilitation or reconstruction, creation of public facilities, and revitalization of business. At the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century, the area around the railway station has undergone a major transformation. As the station is the gateway to the city with the main avenues intersecting here.
The bus station, certified NF since , has been refurbished. The southern districts of Le Havre are mainly used for industrial and port activities. There are buildings in brick from the 19th century, large developments Chicago, Les Neiges , worker estates, SMEs, warehouses, dock and port facilities, and transport infrastructure.
The southern districts have for some years experienced profound change due to European funding. It is revitalizing areas neglected by industrial and port activities by developing tertiary activities. The City of the Sea and of Sustainable Development Odyssey 21 will be organized around a metal tower one hundred metres high designed by Jean Nouvel : the project was suspended in but the work should finally begin in The upper town is composed of three parts: the "coast", the suburban districts of the plateau, and large peripheral housing estates. The neighbourhoods on the "coast" the Dead Cliff are residential — more prosperous in the western part Les Ormeaux, Rue Felix Faure and more modest to the east St.
Cecilia, Aplemont. The Jenner tunnel passes under the "coast" and connects the upper town to the lower town. It is also on the coast that there are two fortifications of the city, Forts Sainte-Adresse and Tourneville, and the main cemetery Sainte-Marie cenetery.
With the demise of the military functions of the city, the forts are gradually being converted: Fort Sainte-Adresse houses the Hanging Gardens and Fort Tourneville hosted the Tetris project in — an axis of contemporary music with concert halls and rehearsal studios. To the north of the "coast" suburban districts such as Rouelles, Sainte-Cecile, la Mare au Clerc, Sanvic, Bleville, and Dollemard were developed during the first half of the 19th century.
The peripheral suburbs of the commune grew in the postwar period. These are large housing estates in Caucriauville, Bois de Bleville, Mont-Gaillard, and Mare-rouge where a disadvantaged population is concentrated. It allows the demolition and rebuilding of more than 1, homes. When founded in , the city was named Franciscopolis after Francis I of France. Its construction was ordered to replace the ancient harbours of Honfleur and Harfleur whose utility had decreased due to silting. The history of the city is inextricably linked to its harbour.
During the 19th century, it became an industrial center. At the end of World War I Le Havre played a major role as the transit port used to wind up affairs after the war. The city was devastated during the Battle of Normandy when 5, people were killed and 12, homes were totally destroyed. The center was rebuilt in a modernist style by Auguste Perret. However it explains why the complementary determinant -de-Grace was not restored.
It is generally considered a loan from Middle Dutch from the 12th century. New research however focuses on the fact that the term was attested very early 12th century and in Norman texts in the forms Hable , hafne , havene , havne , and haule makes a Dutch origin unlikely. Le Havre is one of two sub-prefectures of Seine-Maritime and the second largest subprefecture in France after Reims. It is also the capital of the Arrondissement of Le Havre which includes 20 Cantons and communes.http://git.pebibits.com/12550.php
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The city of Le Havre is divided into nine Cantons as shown in the following table with the councillors in . The city of Le Havre has long been the strongest bastion of the Communist Party of France , who directed it from to For example, in the presidential election of , the 7th electoral district voted for Nicolas Sarkozy UMP by The number of inhabitants in Le Havre is between , and , so the number of councillors is 59 members. The mayor , 41 aldermen and 17 deputies form the council of Le Havre elected in The debates are generally public except for certain proceedings.
With its annex, it includes a high court, a juvenile court, and a commercial court. The city also has a Labour Court and District Court. Among the legal services offered there are legal aid services and the application of penalties. Le Havre depends on the Court of Appeal of Rouen. The prison, which dates from the Second Empire , was completely destroyed in It has an area of 32, m2 on a site of 15 hectares and can accommodate people. Its main structures are Flaubert Hospital the oldest, located downtown , the Monod Hospital in Montivilliers , the Pierre Janet Hospital psychiatry , the house for adolescents, day hospitals, and seniors' residences.
Built in , the Jacques Monod Hospital offers a full range of care in medicine, surgery, gynecology, obstetrics, pediatrics, geriatrics, mental health follow-up care, rehabilitation, reintegration, and public health. The private clinic of Ormeaux is located in the neighbourhood of Eure. During the first half of the 20th century, the th regiment of infantry of the line was stationed at Le Havre and left an important mark on the city so a street was named after them. The 74th Infantry Regiment of commandos was present from to The ceremony was held at the City Hall on 15 November , during a stopover at the Building.
Le Havre has twinning associations with:. Le Havre experienced a population boom in the second half of the 19th century. Subsequently, the population drain of the First World War was offset by the annexation of the town of Graville the city gained 27, people between and During the Second World War the population decreased significantly a loss of 57, people between and because of the exodus and bombings.
After the war the commune saw its population increase until Since then population has decreased again, especially between and during these years of industrial crisis the population fell by 18, people. The trend continued in the s although at a slower pace. The current policy of the municipality is to build new housing to attract new residents with the goal of exceeding , inhabitants, a level that was reached in the s.
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The population of the commune of Le Havre was , inhabitants in which placed the city at 12th place among the most populated cities in France and in the first place in Normandy. In INSEE counted , people lived in the commune of Le Havre  while the urban area of Le Havre had , people  25th place nationally and the Metropolitan area of Havre had , inhabitants.
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In , the commune had , inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10, inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. In , the birth rate was In the city had a lower proportion of managers and intellectual occupations than the national average 4. However, it remains higher than in the rest of the country.
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